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Allergic rhinitis in children

Seasonal allergy (hay fever)
You may know some people with hay fever. When pollen blows in the wind, these people begin to sneeze and itch in their noses as well as runny. The tree pollen is the usual reason for this condition in the spring, while the ragweed is the reason in the autumn (the flowers rarely cause hay fever because of the large size of their pollen, where they cannot fly over distances; rather they move from a place To a place by insects and other beings).
Hay fever usually affects children after they are three or four years old, and it is often a hereditary condition within the family. Also, it is likely that the tears of the eyes and the feeling of itching in them constantly are symptoms of allergies, and the doctor can make sure to diagnose allergies based on symptoms and physical examination and his knowledge of the nature of the most common and widespread pollen in your area at different times of the year.
The incidence of allergic rhinitis throughout the year
Many chi…

Eczema and forms of rash in children

Eczema symptoms

Eczema is a patch of rough itchy skin rash that is severely dehydrated in the skin and skin. It usually begins with eczema in a young infant on his cheeks or forehead, to infect the ears and neck afterward. Until the child turns one year old, eczema can spread almost anywhere - and we find them in the shoulders, arms, and chest. Between the first and third years of a child's life the most common patches are those creases and wrinkles in the elbows and behind the knees.

When the eczema is slight or still in its infancy, the color of the spots will tend to light red or dark pink. When the injury is severe, the skin will be dark red. The constant scratching and itching leaves marks and scratches on the skin that cause the baby to cry and the flow of these scratches to dry out to be flakes. The scratched areas are often susceptible to infection by bacteria (usually staph bacteria), further exacerbating their flow and exfoliation. When treating a spot of eczema - even after the red color has completely disappeared from the skin - you will feel that the skin is still rough and thick. For children with darker skin, the treated areas will look lighter or darker than the rest of the skin for weeks or months. Not all skin rashes with scales are considered eczema. Eczema is an itchy rash, and any new rash - especially in infants - must be examined by a doctor.

The relationships between allergic states

Eczema tends to be a hereditary disease in families along with other types of food allergy and rhinitis as well, and these three troublesome conditions together are known as "hypersensitivity" or "atopy"; this indicates another term for eczema, which is atopic dermatitis or Atopic dermatitis. When developing eczema, there may be an allergic reaction to different types of food, or different materials, such as wool or silk, when in contact with the skin. In many cases, food allergy and skin irritation from the outside have a role in infection. In general, winter is the worst period of eczema, because it causes dry skin, which is already very dry in this period. On the other hand, other children develop an even worse condition from eczema in hot weather because their sweat irritates the skin. Itchiness leads to scratching that increases irritation to the skin, causing more itchiness.

In severe cases, it is especially important to try to identify the food that causes the allergic reaction. Cow's milk, soy milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (including peanuts), fish and shellfish are among the most common allergens, and few infants can be treated with food allergy by preventing the supply of cow's milk to them altogether. It is best to search for allergens under the guidance of an experienced doctor. Trying to locate these foods on your own often results in undesirable results.

Eczema treatment

Moisture is the solution, and a warm (not hot) bath for about five minutes allows the water to permeate the pores of the skin. Do not use too much soap, as the "pure" soap is very rough and dry. When you have to use soap, use soap with a lot of moisturizers inside. Stay away from deodorant soap and bubble bath. Add shower oil near the end of taking a bath to keep moisture in the skin. Dry your baby with a soft towel, while avoiding rubbing or rubbing his skin. After that, use a lot of moisturizing cream. If the skin is very dry, you can use petroleum jelly to hold moisture inside. Apply a moisturizing cream two or three times a day, and in winter use an evaporator to maintain a reasonable amount of air humidity indoors.

To reduce skin irritation, get rid of any wool in clothes or bedding. If cold and windy weather causes your eczema, try to find sheltered or covered places when you leave the house. It is important to keep your child's nails cut. The less a child scratches his skin, the less itchy. For babies who bear the scratch on their skin, wearing cotton gloves at night will help them a lot to cover their hands, as the baby scratches more for his skin during sleep. Medicines that reduce itching also help.

Besides moisturizers, doctors often prescribe a hydrocortisone cream, which is a corticosteroid. Steroid compounds are very different from the structural steroid or steroids used by some athletes, and some teenagers who want to obtain athlete-like bodies. Hydrocortisone is found in different potency and potency levels, and there are creams and ointments (such as triamcinolone) that are also more potent. Antihistamines can help reduce itching. It is a good idea to use a moisturizer with 1 percent hydrocortisone and diphenhydramine on your side to treat mild eczema. But for more severe cases of eczema, it is best to consult your child's doctor or dermatologist. If the eczema spot is infected with the bacteria, antibiotics can help treat it, which is usually taken by mouth.

Eczema may be difficult to treat sometimes; hence, the best thing we can do is to keep the rash under control, and the child's eczema is often fully cured early in childhood, or at least it becomes less severe in the following year or The next two years of the injury. Likewise, about half of the school-age children with eczema recover completely from adolescence.

Other forms of rash

If your child has a new rash, it is best to visit the doctor to see and diagnose it. It is difficult to describe the rash with words, and it is easy to confuse it with other diseases with these words. Therefore, the purpose of this section is not to make you expert in the field; It only makes you aware of some types of rashes expected to be seen daily. For infant rashes - including diaper rashes.

Serious skin rash

The rash irritates the skin, but is rarely dangerous. Often a child with a slight viral infection appears smeared in red or areas that take the form of small bands or bumps covering the face, arms, and torso, but all of that soon fades and the child heals. The important thing is that this rash be faded or white in color, so that if you use your fingers to stretch the skin that the rash has, the redness fades; this is a good sign.

If redness does not go away when stretching the skin, be careful; blood may leak into the skin. The very small blood vessels that break down are left with very delicate red points, while larger vessels that break or leak blood are left with irregular red or violet stains. It is worth noting that the matter is not always so bad; it is possible - sometimes - that a severe cough can cause small blood vessels to explode on the face, for example. But bleeding inside the skin can be a first sign of a serious infection or serious blood condition. If you see red spots that do not fade in color by applying pressure to them - even if your child does not seem very sick - contact the doctor immediately.

Urticaria (urticaria)

It is an allergic reaction that causes red bruises or smudges, often accompanied by a faint patch in the middle. And urticaria is an itch, and sometimes it is not possible. Unlike most other forms of rashes, urticaria can travel in the body, where it appears for several hours somewhere in the body and then disappears to appear again in another location. It is worth noting that urticaria fades in color when the affected skin is stretched.

The cause of an allergic reaction to urticaria may be evident, as your child may have recently been trying to eat new food or take new medicine. (And urticaria - like other types of allergies - sometimes appears when exposure to food or the new drug for the second or third time; do not be misled). Other causes include exposure to heat, cold, plants, soaps, detergents, viral infections (including colds) and even exposure to violent agitation. However, it is often impossible to determine the cause of the infection, and although few children develop urticaria frequently, many of them

They only get it once or twice for no apparent reason. The usual treatment is taking oral diphenhydramine or other antihistamines available in pharmacies without prescriptions, and the most effective drugs are available according to one of the prescriptions.

In very rare cases, urticaria occurs accompanied by swelling inside the mouth and throat and difficulty breathing (anaphylactic shock). If this happens, know that it is a medical emergency, and you should call an ambulance immediately. Children who have previously had a single episode of anaphylactic shock should have a pre-filled epinephrine injector - the Epi-Pen brand or the AnaKit “Anna Kate.”


Impetigo often begins as blisters containing yellow or white liquid above or near the nose, but infection can occur anywhere in the body. These blisters open, and brown or honey-colored scales are taken in place, and it should come to mind that Any scales on the face are impetigo, where the rash spreads easily, and is transmitted through the hands to other parts of the body and to other children.

Impetigo is an infection of the skin caused by streptococcus or streptococcus bacteria, and it is treated with antibiotics prescribed by the doctor. Until you are able to go to the doctor, try to prevent your child from rubbing or messing with blisters, not sharing towels, towels or bedding with others, and committing to hand washing well. It is worth noting that lack of interest in treating herpes can lead to kidney damage, so you must take it seriously.

Impetigo from the fourth to twelfth months:

It is a bacterial infection that affects the skin. In general, it is not a serious condition, but it is infectious. It begins as small, very thin vesicles containing yellow liquid or white pus, surrounded by red skin, then the vesicles open easily and leave behind small patches flattened with skin. However, it is not a dense shell in young children, unlike in older children. Impetigo tends to initiate infection in wet areas, such as the diaper edge, in the groin area, or under the armpits. New patches may appear. But anti-bacterial ointments available without prescriptions - in addition to the affected area being dried by air - are factors that can help treat the condition. Also, be careful not to cover clothes, or sheets, for stains, while keeping the room warmer than usual, if necessary. During impetigo, nappies, sheets, underwear, bedding, towels, and towels should be sterilized, using regular bleach in the wash water, according to the washing instructions on the bottle. If you do not get rid of this infection as soon as possible, you should contact the doctor, your child may need the prescription antibiotics available.


The red, swollen area of ​​the skin that feels pain may be a boil. A boil is a skin infection that results in pockets with pus. If the condition worsens, the cause is a type of streptococcus bacteria called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, this infection can be serious and requires immediate treatment, perhaps taking oral medication to treat the condition, or pockets of pus may need to be emptied while giving antibiotics In the hospital.

Al-Summaq Al-Jahali (poison ivy rash)

The small group of blisters that cause severe itching, which is found on an area of ​​bright red skin, is called the "legional legor" disease, especially if it appears during warm months on exposed parts of the body. The rash of this disease appears like impetigo, and sometimes the child scratches the skin and helps enter the bacteria. This results in the presence of a legionary rash with impetigo.

You should wash the affected area thoroughly and clean your child's hands, especially the fingertips. A porphyry is an allergic reaction to a plant's sap, and even a small amount of this sap can transfer the allergic reaction to other parts of the body. Use hydrocortisone cream, and the child may be given diphenhydramine orally (Benadryl) to overcome the itchy feeling, and talk to a doctor to find out whether the allergic reaction will extend more widely or not.


It is another type of rash that is filled with bumps and itchy, due to an allergic reaction to the mite. Mites are very small creatures that dig into the skin. Scabies looks like groups or lines of blisters topped with scales surrounded by lots of traces of scratching and scratches on the skin, and it is a cause of great itching. Scabies usually appears in areas that are frequently touched, such as the backs of hands, wrists, pubis, and abdomen (not on the back). Although scabies is not dangerous, it is highly contagious. The lotion prescribed by the doctor eliminates mites, and itching can last for weeks.


It is a skin disease caused by an infection with a fungus (associated with ringworm or athlete's foot) that affects the upper layers of the skin. Among its symptoms is the presence of one or more oval-shaped spots whose size is close to the size of a coin whose edges are swollen and slightly reddish, and the outer frame of it consists of small bumps or scales that resemble fish scales. The volume of the rash slowly expands over time leaving the area in the center clean, forming a circular ring. This disease is a little itchy, and is slightly contagious, and is treated with the cream prescribed by the doctor.

Alopecia areata or ringworm that affects the scalp causes scaling and hair loss. Sometimes it is accompanied by a large soft swelling in addition to swollen lymph nodes located behind the head and neck. Antifungal creams will not be effective in hair-covered areas, as their treatment will require daily oral medications for weeks.


Warts can be flat, lumpy, or long and thin, the common type of which is hard, hard-to-feel lumps that grow on the skin and are about the size of the letters. Warts are usually not painful, but they can be painful when located in the sole of the foot. Of the various types of warts, the one known as molluscs is infectious. It causes round white or pink bumps in the size of the pinhead. There is a dimple in the middle. Their numbers may double and increase in size or remain the same. Viruses are the cause of warts, and the body often responds to them in order to eliminate them. But warts medications available without a prescription can speed up the recovery process; they can even be treated by applying a plaster tape to the site of the injury daily. If these treatments don't work, your dermatologist can cool or remove these warts, a service that some PHC doctors also offer.

Skin rash from the fourth to twelfth month

It is wise to display any unknown rashes to your child's doctor, as rashes are difficult to describe in words. Although most types of rashes are not very serious, some are signs of illness that need immediate medical attention.

Common diaper rashes

Most children are sensitive to their skin. And the diaper wearing area often suffers from infections because the skin remains hydrated, even with the most absorbent diapers. This is why the best treatment for diaper infections is to wear them for a few hours during the day. It is a good time to do without a nappy, immediately after defecation, because the possibility of defecation decreases again in the next few hours. In this case, you can fold a diaper underneath your newborn, or place your newborn over a large, waterproof mattress (the boys tend to sprinkle the water, so put some paper towels on hand). Roughly, all children develop fewer rash spots caused by diaper wear from time to time. If the rash is mild and disappears quickly, as it appears quickly, it is not necessary to use a special treatment besides allowing the baby's skin to dry out due to air.

Do not wash the diaper area with soap while your child has a rash, as soap can cause inflammation. Instead of wet diapers, use only water. You can also cover the skin with a protective layer by applying the area with a thick layer of petroleum jelly or any of the ointments for the rash in the diaper area. In addition, some providers of diaper washing services use special detergents in case of rash. If you are washing diapers at home, try adding half a cup of white vinegar to the last rinse.

Diaper infections caused by yeast infections (also called bleached or candida) affect the baby's skin with bright red spots, grouped together, to form a red-colored area surrounded by red spots. The treatment is a yeast cream. As for the rash that is accompanied by pimples or pus (especially with the presence of heat or even without it), it is more likely to result from a bacterial infection, in which case the affected child should be brought to the doctor's attention.

Skin rash due to diarrhea

Sometimes, defecation disorder during an acute diarrhea episode causes severe ulcerative skin infections around the anus, or a bright red rash in the buttocks area. Its treatment lies in changing diapers when they get dirty - which is not an easy thing - then cleaning the diaper area with oil, or if it is very painful to wipe it, then you should carry the baby and clean the area under a warm water tap, then dry it by patting, and apply a thick layer of any ointment that protects the skin (All brands are similar to each other in quality). If this does not work, the diaper should be abandoned and the area exposed to air. While your child develops diarrhea, it sometimes appears that nothing helps reduce inflammation, but fortunately the rash disappears on its own once the diarrhea stops.

Skin rash on the face

Children experience many minor rashes in the first few months, and although this rash is very common, it is not specific enough to distinguish it by names. There are some children who develop milia, which are small, shiny white blisters that are not surrounded by any redness: they look like small pearls on the skin. This condition results from the lack of openness of the oil glands on the skin, after its release of oils that remain in their lumps latent. But over the following weeks or months, the oily channels open and allow the oil to exit.

Some children develop a set of small red spots or soft pimples on the cheeks and forehead, so they look like acne, which is really acne. The reason for their emergence is the exposure to the mother hormones in the womb. These spots or pimples may last for a long time, which bothers the parents deeply. Sometimes, they disappear and then turn red again. It does not seem that different ointments work with it, but these stains always end up disappearing.

Toxic erythema consists of spotted red patches, with a diameter of between a quarter and a half of an inch, and some include heads of small white blisters. In darker skinned children, spots can take a purple hue. It is a condition that appears and disappears on different parts of the face and body, and we do not know what causes this common rash, but when it disappears it does not come back again. However, blisters or vesicles filled with pus can be contagious, and you should immediately consult your doctor about them.

Irritated rashes accompanied by exfoliation can be a form of eczema; often characteristic of families.

Skin rashes on the body and scalp

A rash of heat (or impetigo) is a very common type of rash that appears on the shoulders and neck area in children, when hot weather begins. They appear as clusters of very small pink blisters, surrounded by smudge of pink in light-skinned children, and may have a dark red or purple color in dark-skinned people. Small vesicles also form on some pimples, and when dry, they give the rash a slight bronze color. The rash usually begins around the neck, and may spread to the chest and back and up around the ears and the face, but it rarely causes discomfort to the child. For treatment, you can apply the soda bicarbonate solution to the rash several times a day using a cotton swab by patting it (one teaspoon of soda bicarbonate over a cup of water). In addition, cornstarch powder can be used on the rash (avoiding talcum powder, as it can irritate the lungs). Most types of heat rash disappear on their own without special treatment, and the most important thing is to try to ensure that the child is in a cold environment. And don't be afraid to loosen his clothes in hot weather.

Nativity Hat or Cap:

It is a disorder called matrix, and it appears as a fatty scaly smear on the scalp in yellow or red color. It can also appear on the face, in the diaper area, and in all parts of the body. To treat it, try to apply this scaly smear with oil to soften it, then wash the head with a gentle anti-dandruff shampoo, and get rid of the scales by combing them.

But do not leave the oil for a long time on the head before using shampoo. There are also medicinal types of shampoo and prescriptions that are useful in this case. Be aware that this problem rarely persists beyond the first six months of a child's life.